What is cognitive science? “Cognitive science is the study of how the mind works, functions, and behaves.” ( They tend to understand the intelligence and behavior in which they can help humans in many ways such as developing education program or building smarter devices.  As a teacher, the style of cognitive learning is a powerful alternative to the traditional classroom approach.  Many of my students are focusing on memorization, cognitive learning builds on past knowledge.  They tend to learn to make some kind of connections and reflect on the the material that I provide for them.

Infographic is a “visual representation of any kind of information or data.” ( An educator as myself uses infographic to explain a concept or break down information to make it easier for the students to understand. One of the most effective ways to help students find and absorb information is through visual ads.  Visuals are often more straightforward to illustrate information.

When we say that something is logical, what we actually mean is that it makes sense. “Logical reasoning skills are the ability to focus on the presented task by following the chain of the thought process. It does this by relating one statement after another, until finding the most logical conclusion.”  ( As an educator, I see preschoolers and most autistic children are at the preoperational stage of development. They use their perceptions of the environment, along with bits of information gathered during their past experiences, to understand their world. They base their understanding on what they see rather than on logic. They need to go through many illogical thinking processes before they can even begin to make logical sense of their world.

Concept-based instruction is driven by “big ideas” rather than subject-specific content. By leading students to consider the context in which they will use their understanding, concept-based learning brings “real world” meaning to content knowledge and skills. Students become critical thinkers which is essential to their ability to creatively solve problems in the 21st century. Concept-based teaching helps our students to uncover conceptual relationship in a way that is developmentally appropriate.

Game based learning is “where game characteristics and principles are embedded within learning activities.” (  Learning activities promote student engagement and motivation to learn. Components of game-based learning include points systems, badges, leaderboards, discussion boards, quizzes and classroom response systems. Points may come with academic rewards such as having an extra week to submit an assignment,once reaching a certain point threshold.  It is also an active learning technique where the games are used to engage in students learning.


Sheikh, M. (2021, March 21). What is an Infographic? (Examples, tips and templates). Retrieved March 29, 2021, from

What is cognitive science? (2021, March 11). Retrieved March 29, 2021, from

Zivanovic, V. (2019, October 31). What is logical thinking and how to strengthen it. Retrieved March 29, 2021, from


As we pay attention, we tend to focus on one thing and put other things out of our minds. For example, we listen to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations and background noise in the room. Paying attention uses particular networks in the brain. It’s a skill that develops over time. To pay attention well, we need to be alert. This allows us to sort out the right information from our surroundings and put this information together. Paying attention is a key skill for learning.”  ( For example, children need to pay attention to a teacher’s instructions to be sure they’re doing things the right way. Children also need to be able to keep their attention on tasks to be able to learn.


“Memory refers to the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain, and later retrieve information.” ( Memory is the faculty by which the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information. It is a record of experience that guides future action.  Our memory involves the ability to both reserve and recover information we have learned or experienced.  Sometimes we forget things.  Memory in people who are on the spectrum can resemble photographic.  However, they may or may not recollect a name or face but some of them can surprise you with the smallest details that they recall.

Intrinsic motivation:

“Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards.” ( You do it because it’s enjoyable and interesting, rather than because of an outside incentive or pressure to do it, such as a reward or deadline. An example of intrinsic motivation would be reading a book because you enjoy reading and have an interest in the story or subject, rather than reading because you have to write a report on it to pass a class.  

Extrinsic Motivation:

“Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external rewards such as money, fame, grades, and praise.” ( In extrinsic motivation, rewards or other incentives like praise, fame, or money are used as motivation for specific activities. Unlike intrinsic motivation, external factors drive this form of motivation. Being paid to do a job is an example of extrinsic motivation. You may enjoy spending your day doing something other than work, but you’re motivated to go to work because you need a paycheck to pay your bills. In this example, you’re extrinsically motivated by the ability to afford your daily expenses. In return, you work a set number of hours a week to receive pay. Extrinsic motivation doesn’t always have a tangible reward. It can also be done through abstract rewards, like praise and fame.


Cherry, K. (2020, May 15). What is Memory? Retrieved April 10, 2021, from

Cherry, K. (2020, June 28). How does extrinsic motivation influence behavior? Retrieved April 10, 2021, from

Unit 7:

Cognitive Science connections of Piaget’s Constructivist Theory. 

“Cognitivist teaching methods aim to assist students in assimilating new information to existing knowledge, as well as enabling them to make the appropriate modifications to their existing intellectual framework to accommodate that information.” (   I think that Piaget believed that when we are faced with new information that we experience a cognitive disequilibrium. In response, we are continuously trying to regain cognitive homeostasis through adaptation. Piaget also proposed that, through maturation, we progress through four stages of cognitive development.

“Student empowerment is where students gain the authority and agency to make decisions on their own and implement their changes in school.” ( Student empowerment generally includes learning, teaching and leadership in the classroom. Empowerment happens through student authorization and action upon gaining a sense of power. Student empowerment alsorefers to students prioritizing meaningfulness, competence, impact and choice in their learning journey. Strategies for instructors to use to promote student empowerment include inspiring possibilities, tapping into students’ interests and encouraging critical consumption and creation.

“Self-directed education is education that derives from the self-chosen activities and life experiences of the learner, whether or not those activities were chosen deliberately for the purpose of education.” ( Self-directed education can include organized classes or lessons, if freely chosen by the learner; but most self-directed education is more informal and part of everyday life. Play, trying something new, having lunch with a friend, reading science fiction on the subway: there’s learning in all these endeavors, and in Self-Directed Education, as long as the learner is making their own choices that learning is granted as much value and space as more formal pursuits. The motivating forces that make all of us learners include curiosity, playfulness, and sociability. Self-directed education necessarily leads different individuals along different paths, though the paths may often overlap, as each person’s interests and goals in life are in some ways unique and in some ways shared by others.

Dynamic learning is characterized by constant change and activity. This learning takes place organically, growing and evolving through more unconventional means, with the learner collaborating, creating and communicating to demonstrate progress and mastery. Dynamic learning also extends beyond the boundaries of a traditional school day, beyond the physical location of the classroom, beyond the use of tools as digital substitutes, or even beyond the traditional notion of hard-and-fast due dates.


Cognitive constructivism. (2021). Retrieved April 24, 2021, from

The dynamic learning framework for teachers by KASEY BELL (Whiteboard Animation) [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2021, from

Student empowerment definition and meaning. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2021, from

What is Self-Directed Education? (2021). Retrieved April 24, 2021, from

What is Self-Directed Education? [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2021, from

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